Turkey Brown Racism: Turkey, 200,530 churches 1940s A.D. some years ago; today only 38 Christian Churches are allowed to stand. Most were rentals for people to live , but racist Moslems at the local government demanded to end housing and these Turkeys identify as BROWNS, thus Brown Turkish Moslems said, "if we ban the buildings the white people will leave or die, ha ha ha ! That has taken place and has no religious connotations, just the color and body type of these competing cultures.
why #ottoman #state did not accept #science after 16 th century. why? the holy grail of all Ottoman questions. Here is your answer. #bookoflife #islamichistory #history #worldhistory #immigration #migration #Empire
selim the " Grim" conquered the Levant and Middle East ( not Iraq) . circa 1500s and parts of north africa. that let in the brown dna and they hate science. so it takes 200 years to have these new migrants reach Istanbul and wreak arab supremacy laws which were masked as non science laws. source, Turkish archives, class at #UCBekeley professor studied for 10 years the ottoman archives at #Istanbul . however this is my interpretation. this googlepost is a rare update
see my many ottoman pages for details and good Islamic and co religious statehood. #bookoflife .org
Crucifixion Eclipse : The Large Gizāh Pyramid : Nostradamus’ Birthdate at Central Axis of Giza Pyramid :
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by Michael Johnathan McDonald
Important places to know.
Rivers and Seas
Euphrates River ( Iraq)
Nile River ( Egypt)
Trabzon ( Trebizond)
Salonica ( Thessaloniki)
Areas and Provinces
Moldavia & Wallachia
Early maps and originals list:
General Map links:
Things to know before going on.
Islam affects on Empire: The one main factor to consider in history is that this period the Muslims now cross over into European territory by the Seljuk's establishing first the Islamic vassal state of Seljuk Roman in Anatolia, before it will become the Ottoman Empire, a full-on Islamic nation.
The Ottomans did not come out of a vacuum but an ambiance. The myth that circulated for some time was that this group descended from upper central Asia all in a sudden flash and took over Anatolia. This was furthest from the facts. The process of the Ottomans took shape over 200-300 year period. It was a long arduous process with many factors involved. Usually Empires are built slowly from building blocks and with many cultures involved. There were exceptions and some of these exceptions were quite famous: Alexander the Great (Macedonian-Greek) , Julius Caesar ( Romans) , Chinngus Khan ( Mongols) and some others; however, most Empires were built over a period of time.
Anatolia lies to the south of the Black Sea, and to the east of the Aegean Sea, just north of the eastern Mediterranean Sea and, inland, the Fertile Crescent, and west of the Caucasus-Azerbaijani districts.
1750 BC. They established the Old Hittite Kingdom
Byzantine Empire ( Roman eastern Empire | Christian strong hold in the world at this time | capital Constantinople| Patron Saint Mother Mary)
Serbia ( Stronghold of Christians. Kosovo, south of Belgrade, the key city eyed by the conquerors).
Albania, South of Serbia, & butts up against Greece, now just open territory.
Venetian Territories (Venice, the trade and Adriatic Sea are important sea-trade routs, very important to western civilization of Europe | Christian)
Greeks for as long as we known them have lived in Anatolia (ancient Greeks), especially the branch of Greek states on the western coastlines of Anatolia (Ionia (Greek Ιωνία) was thusly called by this name because it consisted of twelve major cities that resided in the ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia , now in Turkey, on the Aegean Sea). For most of Anatolia’s history up until WWI, many ethnic groups inhabited this region and much of the time integration was a theme due to the location and the business opportunities that melded the Far East and the West, as was know during the different periods up until WWI, making it a wealthy and important area to control.
After World War I, around 1920-22, the Greeks were force to move to common Greece and abandon western Anatolia and the Turks living in Common Greece were forced to move to Turkey in Anatolia – thus uprooting families and creating nationalism (Segregation). For many this was a painful period for this region. As we will see the history of Anatolia sparks considerable diversity in religion, cultures, and ethnicity throughout many periods in its history.
The Greeks living in Anatolia called themselves Romans (remnants of the Eastern Roman Empire) and were Christians belonging to the Eastern Orthodox Church, which was not part of the Latin (Roman) Catholic Church. The Eastern Church didn’t take orders from the Pope. They had their own saints and patrons to associate church doctrine with. The important thing to remember was that Christianity at this time was a state religion in the Byzantine Empire. The Eastern Orthodox also included Serbians, Armenians, and some Bulgarians. The Armenians have always been Christian, but they have thought of themselves as the first Christians in history and have felt a special importance in this regard. Therefore, intermingling, according to facts with other Christian denominations were everything but social. Like much of the Jewish History in the Middle Ages, the Armenians kept to themselves as a tightly fit unit and the only aspects of interaction in public were in commerce (business) only [ there are always exceptions]. the term Rūm, generally means Anatolia, however it was interchanged in Persian and Arabic under the Ottomans to include Rumelia. For example, the Rūm Seljuks who had the dominance in Anatolia ending around 1308.
Tension would one day erupt between the Greek orthodox Church and the Latin Church in Byzantine splitting Christianity into two competing departments that left a inunity [ no unity] hole wide enough that a competing religion could come in and take over. This is a simplistic explanation to the take over from an outside force. The Seljuks (some of the factors of the Pre-Ottomans) will fill this position. Anatolia was ripe for business opportunity in world trade. First the Roman had left their imprint with roads, buildings and the city grid system ( First inspired by some of Alexander’s Generals ( before the city outline was circular or odd shaped for invasion protection purposes –awkward by protective against armies, to some degree)). There were Roma names of towns and cities. For example, Kayseri, comes from ceasaria which never really lost its name.
Turks were not originally native to the Anatolian area. They became sizable in and around 11th Century. They came from inner Asia ( broad term in scholarship), which is a broad term in scholarship that goes all the way to Siberia, Mongolia and fringes of China. The variety of Turkish language link back to Japanese (modern argument) but more importantly Mongolian, as there was curious cognates in both languages. Yet, influence goes both ways, and the Turks could have influence the Mongols and Japanese. The older and more establish belief is that Turkic language was from Hungarian or the ancestors of Hungarian, the Han Dynasty of China. Many ties back to the Han/Hun periods as Khan ( note the spelling), the later usage of the Mongolian leaders term for king, is a close cognate. Mongolians even spoke parts of various Turkic languages.
According to many historians, the usage of the word "Oghuz" is dated back to the advent of the Huns (220 BC). The title of "Oghuz" (Oguz Khan) was given to Mete, the founder of the Hun empire, which is often considered the first Turkic political entity in Central Asia.
Also in the 2nd century BC, a Turkic tribe called "O-kut" who were described as Huns (referred to as Xiongnu or "colored-eyed people" in Chinese sources) were mentioned in the area of Tarbogatain, in present-day southern Kazakstan. It must be noted that the Greek sources used the name Oufi (or Ouvvi) to describe the Oghuz Turks, a name they had also used to describe the Huns centuries earlier2a.
Shamans The Original leaders of the Pre History tribes
Egypt controlled Africa and the Mamalukes claimed Islam - they held Mecca and Medina prior to Selim; the big sunni state held is Syria, all the way to parts of southern Turkey. Aleppo is controlled before Selim by Europeans and is a huge distribution/re-routing trade center.
Seljuks are always Muslim , but since they ascertained (invaded) Iran, they picked up Persian customs (especially the literature portions) bringing with them an institutional base of the ancient laws of Persia for much of their administration. The Persian culture comes through the Seljuks and can be seen as the Ghaznavids whom bring Perso-Islam ( and Perso -Islamic sovereignty) - to India. However, note that the earliest known accounts of Muslims in Bengal is 711. There also is a huge Muslim presence in India during the Pala period.
Significant world Terminology
The Ottoman Language: Turkic, Persian and mostly Arabic. This will become its own unique language. Many English conceptual terms come from the Ottomans. For example the Supreme Sultan ruled from what is called the White House. The word caucus is similar the the Caucus mountains in Anatolia. The Caucus area is significant in history “Catalhoyuk is one of the world’s oldest cities. Dating back to the Neolithic Era, it was an important cultural centre with many temples decorated with frescoes bycity artisans. Konya and the surrounding regions would later be ruled during the Chalcolithic, Bronze, Hittite, Phrygian, Persian, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine eras.1” The Seljuk Empire will transform this place in the 12th century.
The caucus. cau·cus. noun (plural cau·cus·es) mountains. Local tribes of various ethnicities including frontier ghazis, nomadic, estranged, anti-ottoman groups all inhabit the caucus at different time periods during the Ottoman periods.
The caucus is also a indo-European name communicating a political meeting: a closed meeting of people from one political party, especially a local meeting to select delegates or candidates. The plurality of political parties using a caucus to voice their ideals and thoughts upon their world is the same as the place itself where many tribes, groups and nations stood in the time of history to point out their own thoughts onto the world’s avenues.
Religious concepts in government
Muslims there is no trinity and they have no concept for it – it is just one God and that is it. Although saints, used by some, contradict this scenarios, the strictest sense of the religion uses only God the supreme leader and not a son or a holy spirit. Plato (Jesus) may have been adding into the power of the triangle offence, the potent power of the trinity compared to one point taking all the responsibility. Buddhism influence the Turkic people as it past from India onwards right on through to China. Shammans, the original eastern leaders before the concepts of King in antiquity, were and also played an influence of early Turkic systems. The western Turks were closer to Iran where they picked up Islamic and Persian principles. The eastern Turks didn’t pick up on the Islamic fad as did the western Turks. The Turks tackled Islam but were Islamic themselves. This was frowned upon by Muslims but it happened none the less.
Turkmen, as defined for now, were the Turks whom converted to Islam that were from the west and not the east.
The Turkmen claims that Kirkuk is historically their city, and their backers in the modern Turkish government have warned the Kurds against any attempt to seize control. Turkey has been arming and training a Turkman faction in northern Iraq known as the ITF (Iraqi Turkman Front) as its stalking horse in the Kurdish-controlled enclave.
The Oghuz Turks have perhaps been the most famous, important, dominating, fruitful and successful branch of Turkic peoples and families2b.
The Sultans could never take the name of Caliphate. Firstly, they were recent converts in a historical context and, secondly they didn’t control one of the Islamic historic cities, like Baghdad, or Medina and, thirdly the Sultans were somewhat secular during the expansion period ( up till 1400s), competing with many polytheistic religions of the Anatolian, Caucuses and Steppe regions, prior to Mehmed's adoption of Islam proper in the 15th century .
First the seljuks came upon the good system of rulers of Iran and became caught up in its system of goodness. Then, neo-seljuks decided to imperialize, and actually fight some Islamic tribes to get to Anatolia. “ lets go raid Anatolia” they said. The ones in power, especially the ones that like the goodness of Iran, were deemed too good for the evil branch of Seljuk power controllers. So a devised plan was set up to get rid of them, by excuses to go migrate up north somewhere. When this first immigration wave was accepted into Anatolia, they were adopted with open arms. This was the farmers and agriculturalists. Then word got back that there could be loot. So the nomads were sent – they were not farmers by any sense of the word. The second wave that the Seljuk powers wanted to get rid of were of nomadic persona, and they were all too willing to fight their way into Anatolia bring weapons and making raids. After a while the Seljuk leaders sitting in Iran began to hear stories of how these poor people were gathering all this land, money and power and they said “ wait me must put a stop to this and claim that Anatolia is our vassal state as well – we need that tax base for our ceremonies and expensive court costs.” Migration led to the floodgates of people moving to Anatolia. This led to the battle of Manzikert. These new Seljuks were called RomanSeljuks. They were not traditional Seljuks. First they were thrown out and second the frontier (cause) pattern seen in history affected them too. For example, American frontier thoughts and policies really shaped American values and systems, so will these new colonists ( if we can call them that for now) really changed things when they got their that will affect systems in the future. This is called the frontier cause. The Persian soon come with the Seljuks to build the branch state that will one day be called the Ottoman Empire.
The Seljuks wanted to take Syria but could not wrestle it away from the Mamaluks.
Armenians are living in eastern Anatolia and the first immigrants arrive in this area. They speak an indo-European language. There will be three or more significant Armenian rulers in the Byzantium area. The Armenians are Christians and the arriving immigrants are recently converted Muslims. So there will be exchanges of values and customs that will eventually blend into a new system, and also cause civil wars for the time being and things become sorted out. The Monophysite doctrine: The one substance, not the holy trinity concept as in Christianity will affect the different policies in the near future and help bring about struggle for power and war.
There will be mercenaries from Spain, and people from the Catholic Church all whom involvement themselves in an international claimant on a region that is so important for international trade. This plays so heavily in the Middle Ages and the way the west was cut off to prospering from the east in global trade that the dark ages are really centered around this process and not a geological or atmospheric calamity as claimed by many conspiracy groups. The Anatolia region was a divers place because of many people wanting to get rich from working in the trade business. This included the Jews who were singled out in Europe at the time and began to wander without hope of holding other jobs then trading money. They formed groups that spanned the Middle East and Europe that knew of all the trade routs, commerce prices which helped them become some of the best financial information list in the world.
One might be aware that the adoption of science and technology was severely restricted and debated in the Ottoman Empire, mainly by the kadizadelis, many were spiritual advisers to the Sultan (imam-i sultani).
It would be incorrect to claim that Europeans and far easterners who set up merchant outposts in Allepo ( an ottoman stronghold by the beginning of the 16th cent.) refused to transfer scientific technology to Ottoman officials. It can be stated as the other way around. You may want to consult Cemel Kafadar” The Question of the Ottomans Decline.”(Harvard), Katib Çelebi,” the closing of the Ottoman mind” was an observation and, “As a result of falling standards of higher education and public letters and lack of curiosity in the outside world,” if you have not already.
The fifteenth century Ottomans used a hybrid of Persian, Arabic and some customary languages.
By the 1700s, this is the century that discourse of adoption of science and technology really heated up in the intellectual/political circles of the Empire. I best describe the 16th century as the era of a spending economy. However, the issue lay in what was actually purchased. Besides purchasing shipping technology, much of the ‘state’ economy relied on exporting raw materials and importing luxury items. Since everything was tied to the Sultan, expensive Jewels and coins of great value were treasured. Without making a moral judgment, one would ask why not build up a technological infrastructure? I cannot answer that question. But given to the prime sources, translated into English, I have read, the Ottoman central government did not make these attempts in the 16th century. The idea of presenting great festivals to show off the wealth and prestige of the Empire to the world, appeared a motive for spending.
Many older paradigms in scholarship of the Ottoman Empire retell a story of a decline beginning after Süleyman had changed the government system. However, there was plenty of evidence this was not the case. Technology had spurred on the 17th century economy, albeit limited in comparison to Europe; some could say adoption were only some of the factors. Ottoman invention/innovations in other sectors also told part of the Ottoman Story.
Unfortunately, the “un” adoption of technologies in the Ottoman Empire is directly related to government policy. Every citizen theoretically and pragmatically under the Sultan in the Ottoman Empire was a slave. And ultimately the Sultan was a slave to Allah. This created a surveillance society – always more structured toward Istanbul – going out in circles to the vast territories. This doesn’t appear to be toward your aim of natural lower forces in society working independently and acquiring or adopting technology in the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. Yet, this is what the 17th century sources tell us. Patronage filtered down from the top to every corner of the empire. The Patron could only adopt the government policies of the Sultan and his divan.
Further away from the center such as Cairo and Aleppo, independent Ottoman citizens did begin to integrate foreign technology, and some became rich. However, this was toward the end of the 16th century, and continued into the 17th respectively. However, Istanbul makes numerous attempts and somewhat succeeded in establishing strict controls on habit in law – directly affecting the acquisition and use of foreign technology.
Interesting things one could look for:
Iberian and North Africa’s ship building business (14th-15th cc., later the Dutch 17th) and compare them with the Ottoman ship building business (14th-15th cc.). It is fascinating to understand these types of wood, the elongation of maritime sustainability, and the over all consequences or results in these cases. A question would be: how did this affect their economy? First, a question of military arises. To understand theses types of knowledge’s each state possessed on what types of wood was preferred, or available, this ultimately led to military success. Military success ultimately led the Ottomans to economic success. This was their bread and butter, so to speak. This could be one example. We already know where Portugal then Spain got its wood, which made them a viable world power and contributed to the economy of Europe, but also so to an economic destabilization of the Ottoman Empire. How did the comparison of availability of wood, and the knowledge to use it, for the Ottomans affect these economies?
I would be wary of placing a modern Marxist model over the pre-modern Ottoman Empire. The citizens did not control the government by any of the Marxist theories. The Sultanate, to control the population, did allow certain banned technology into society; however restrictions on others’ took place in parallel. However, how does this affect your theoretical research -- I would not know? This is only what the sources claim.
The Ottoman and Safavids a Shī’ī state, and India in the 1500s were probably more economically advanced than Europe. Economically speaking, they were much richer. I'm not sure if this bodes well with your evidence, but this seems to be the case in the studies here at UCB. Albeit, Spain does take over Portugal about this time and will quickly rise up to be the economic power of the next century. The letters to the Sultans of written prostrations by England, France, and other European states in the 16th century recognized the economic power of a now Muslim superpower. It is important to note that Anatolia was the trade junction of the world, from the beginning of history (the written record). It continued into the Ottoman era. Control of this area played key role in adoption, restriction and transference of technology, on all levels on the world economy. One of the qualifications we understand today was how important this land was to the middle ages. This could ultimately explain the Christian Crusades, The First Wave of Islam and the Ottomans, as the second wave. Tied in epistemology is the rhetoric of religious fortitude to control the Biblical lands. Religious rhetoric was only a religious tool on all sides of the religious line for dominance of this “world juncture.” Economic world control was the real reason for these centuries of military attempts on all sides to gain the upper hand in controlling the vital trade routs of international trade. Europe relied on spices and technology from the east, as well as the east importing industry relied on economic functions of trade with the west. Anatolia was the middleman, the gatekeeper, the tollbooth. Vast amounts of vital and critical technology that vastly change the geographic landscape of both the east and west can be directly linked this World Juncture.
Keys to understanding Islamic Jihading (politically & linguistically correct, is called struggle, in real terms utilized is called Holy War). Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, stated that once every six months a raid must be carried out ( on non-Muslim territories). However, the Turks, and other converts increased this to about three major raids every year - one in the springtime about 30 days, one large in the summer about 60 days, and a relatively short one about 28 days in the winter (March-April window). This policy helped build the Islamic states of the great era of Islamic world dominance during the western middle ages, and was possibly the major factor in the reason the west stayed in the dark for so long. First, and foremost, the trade routs to the east were cut off by decree of the wished of Muhammad. No trading was aloud with the infidel. However, in this story, one will hear and read about Christian, Jews and Muslims getting along and living side by side. However, this was for politically correct reasons, and not really the wishes of the powers behind the Islamic thrones that wanted to live by Muhammad’s wishes and dominate the other religious peoples of the earth – not live peacefully- in a co-existing society. Yet, the people that were tribal Arabs, before Muhammad, and forced to live under the new Islam, still suffered the same treatments as the Christians, and Jews and many other religious denominations that made up mush of the Middle East in these times (this great trade area of the world brought in the most diverse peoples from around the world). Not everyone likes intolerance, even from whatever culture or background one comes from. There are ample cites [ evidence] in life that show that Christians didn’t like some policies of Christians, and Jews didn’t like some policies of some ruling Jews, and Muslims didn’t like some policies of Muslims. This will be a fact in the Muslim ruled area, as we discuss, as much as it is a fact in the Christian and the Jewish ruled areas of the world ( and all other religions and non-religions, to include culture in general.
Early Line of Ottoman Rulers, a little over view.
Osman ? – 1324 ( Founder; at least three major stories, most possibly mythical, or a tribal leader or a trader)
Orhan 1324 -1362 Osman son and initial land push and capture of Bursa, the first capital of Ottoman.
Murad I 1362-1389 Killed on the Battle Field of Kosovo ( Very famous battle between the Serbian-Bulgarian Christians and Muslism)
Bayezid I 1389-1402 Son of Murad I; takes over reigns of power and conquered (bey/sultan). He begins the siege of Constantinople is the jewel of the area (For economic reason, of coerce). 1402 July: In the battle of Ankara against Timur ( Eng. Tamerlane) Lenk, Bayezid's forces are defeated. Bayezid is put in jail and paraded around in a cage for humiliation.1403: Dies in Aksehir while in captivity.
Civil war breaks out after the inability that is created by Tamerlame ( he was lame in his foot, thus the second part of his nickname). Local lords skirmish and war for local control and the Ottomans nearly fall apart. There is something in history not recognized much. It is a sin in Islam to war against another Islamic tribe. However, this seems to have happened more than was ever written. The inaccuracies, and also the silence by writers and travelers of the like of ibn Batukka, and others who wrote after him leave out key struggles between Islamites. This is in order not to paint them in a bad light, or get in troubled in the era they were composing.
What was the secret behind the success?
The reason that Bayezid’s son steps up to the plat, so to speak, is that the first ten Ottoman rulers use a unique kingship system never seen before in history. It was highly unique. The previous ruler, of the father usually has more then one son. Sometimes he has step-sons and grandsons, and a slew of men from all parts of his family. These boys leave the father and Mother[s] fairly early and are given a regiment of military training, education, a real military and land to practice war on that is deemed theirs’. They will train until about their late teens or twenties, and then battle amongst each other on the battlefield for the throne. The last one standing wins. He is deemed the most intelligent and virtuously strong. This system, however barbaric it may seem, created the best or most courageous military leaders in history (or for this era, at least). For example, Mehmed I won the lands and the battles that were given to his two brothers Süleyman and Isa. Thus, he became the ruler (Mehmed supported his brother Musa in the overthrow and murder of their eldest sibling, Suleiman of Rumelia in 1410.). For more in-depth to practices, happenstances and modifications to abolitions see discussion sections.
One can see this pattern as ingenious in a historical context, because, later on, once Sulyman’s girl friends and wives, and society force him to change this system; the whole empire begins a slow rate of decline. Is there a correlation? Many think so, but not all. The belief is that the Mother now raised her sons in the Harem system and the boys grew up gluttonous, unbridled, and basically many partied too much (some have gone as far as to claim effeminate males). For any male wishing on a dream, growing up in a system of naked beautiful women, most at your beck-and-call would be a dream come true. However, easy living was really the claim for the reason the rulers didn’t grow up with the courage, virtual strength, and military expertise as the first ten.
Mehmed I 1413-1421 (Mehmed I Çelebi (nicknamed Kirisci, "the Executioner") (died May 26, 1421) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He was one of the sons of Beyazid I.) 1398: the Battle of Kosovo keeps going. The Ottomans are Imperializing at an astounding rate. Mehmed would finally make Bosnia submit, in Jihadding ( the struggle to Islamize the world, according to the Koran’s ultimate message| same can be said of Christianity to some extent in various histories eras) , to Islam in continued efforts to get strategically close to Europe to make the final world Islamic death blow (assault) on the west. Constantinople is still being besieged ( War of attrition and other methods) and is the key spot. Venice is also a key, but this comes later.
As Christian Venice, and Christina Kosovo fought and lost to the Islamic corps ( Ottomans), the tides of history changed for certain areas of the world that reverberate till this-day ( note: Struggles of WWI, the 1999 Kosovo War). The Balkan Christians view the "Ottoman yoke" as having repressed their culture and sold their children into slavery in which their children, after becoming brainwashed, came back to kill their parents in the Balkans under a arm of the Ottoman Janissaries program. Played down in history for political correctness, these practices were natural to the tribal, now national mentalities of the era. The Ottomans, also used Turkish people as slave soldiers as well, however, the Christian armies of the Janissary system was their main tool. The battle of the East and West ensued. For significance, the Christian soldiers of later Ottoman period became so strong they even battle and take control of parts of the Ottoman Empire. This will be discussed later.
as a group went from a complete ruin in
1402 to bringing down the Byzantine Empire with the sacking of
Constantinople in 1453.
· 1413 Mehmed Celebi ends up winning the internecine strife; Ottoman realm reunited ( because of the civil war).
· When Timur Lenk defeated the Ottomans in the Battle of Ankara and captured Beyazid, a civil war broke out in the empire, called the Ottoman Interregnum.
· Mehmed gained some lands in Anatolia, which at the time gave him access to the largest source of manpower in the Ottoman lands.
· Mehmed died in 1421.
1430: a large Ottoman fleet attacked Salonika (Thessaloniki, Selanik) by surprise and conquered it. The Venetians signed a peace treaty in 1432; The Venetian port is one the most key strategic port centers in the known world at this time. This is where eventually the Western Civilization rebirth ( renaissance) will happen because of merchant trade openings in the sea routs of the Mediterranean. Many will ask why the Ottomans didn’t concentrate on a naval military as their primary control of the world. This has long puzzled the students of Empire mapping. However, for the moment, the treaty gave the Ottomans the city of Salonika and the surrounding land. Now they will gain from all the taxation and goods through the trade routs, until it is won back.
1454 Mehmed II, ‘the Conqueror ‘demanded that all territories surrounding the Black Sea recognize Ottoman rule. He just took Constantinople the Jewel of the west’s Far East stronghold and great trade area. The commerce of the Black Sea was now in his hands – He demanded that all principalities surrounding the Black sea submit to his ruler ship ( thus taxed). If you won your battles, you made the rules. However, there are many stories indicating that these warrior kings didn’t understand government. For example, one story of eludes too how the people needed to tell the Sultan how to tax the people to keep the social welfare of the area in balance. To much of his surprise, he first denounced the paying of taxes until the people pointed it out as a necessity for social welfare.
1463, Mehmed II won a strategic waterway separating Asia Minor from Europe called Dardanelles, then built two fortresses to protect his interest on both sides of the river.
Mehmed II, Muhammad II or Mehmet II (Muhammad the Conqueror), 1429–81, Ottoman sultan (1451–81), son and successor of Murad II. He is considered the true founder of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) by the unknown to history or some popular consent. However, Suleiman (Süleyman) is more loved and admired for his contributions to land acquisition. . Muhammad II finally breaks into (1453) Constantinople after a 50-day siege, for which he constructed the largest cannons the world had yet known. However, the place was mostly abandoned and destroyed by all the besieging and attrition tactics by earlier leaders.
Mehmed would finally make Bosnia submit to Islam in continued efforts to get strategically close to Europe to make the final world Islamic assault upon Europe. The result of Bosnia would be an Islamicisation by Mehmed, which still reverberates today and was seen (similarly) in a conflict of 1999 Kosovo war between Islam and the Christians. Still this was an economic issue to the Ottomans as much as it was spiritual (islamicisation). For example, Mehmed won a strategic waterway separating Asia Minor from Europe called Dardanelles, in which he then built two fortresses to protect his interest on both sides of the river. The Ottomans now controlled a vital seaway for strategic commerce.
Aya Sofya, Istambol : important landmark
Suleimania Mosque, Istambol
The Blue Mosque, Istambol
Süleyman conquered most of Hungary for the Ottoman empire, and carried the Turkish frontier close to its final limits. After his time rapid expansion ceased, so that in retrospect Süleyman’s reign looked like the peak of Ottoman greatness, both to Turks and to their Christian enemies ( Portrait of Three Monarchs, 1 the Ottoman Süleyman 1, Busbec: from the Turkish letters). Süleyman’s high reputation in western Europe also owed a good deal to Ghislain de Busqecq (1522-1592) who published a series of letters describing Turkish Government and society in rather favorable terms, praising Süleyman as almost a model ruler. Busqecq was in a position to know, for he went to Constantinople in 1555 to act as ambassador for the Hapsburg ruler, Ferdinand I, and remained in Turkey until 1562. (Busbec: “From the Turkish letters” 2). Busqecq intended these publications for print indicating how exotic Turkish institutions and customs (if his account is relatively trustworthy) operated in these days and what possibly the west needed to understand about their aspiring neighbors.
Descriptions of Süleyman by Busqecq; Age when he supposedly saw him, Busqecq estimated that he was about sixty years old. He had no concubines, although he could have if he wished; he had a bad complexion, possibly due to some hidden malady (today we know Strep cases of Acne are usually caused by deficiency of the body to process and utilize correctly Vitamin A) ; it was commonly belived, possibly Busqecq’s investigative (my word), that Süleyman generally enjoyed good heath, but suffered from Ulcers ( vitamin A deficiency w/ stress, again) or gang green of his leg. To hide his ruddy completion, he oft painted his face with red pigment, when he wished departing ambassadors to take an impression of him back to their posts.
Described the war mentality and method of Süleyman ?
Busqecq, description of Süleyman regiments. 40,000 camels, and almost as many baggage-mules, most of whom, if his destination is Persia, are loaded with cereals of every kind, especially rice. Mules and animals are employed to carry tents and arms and warlike machines and implements of every kind. Territories called Persia which are ruled by the Sophi ( Sûfi, Ismâ ‘îl II, Safavid Shâh) , as we call him ( the Turkish name being Kizilbash), are much less fertile than out country; and, further, it is the customs of the inhabitants, when their land is invaded, to lay waste and burn everything, and so force the enemy to retire through lack of food.
Busqecq description of food for survival of Süleyman’s force is quite dramatic. He states that in no circumstances is anyone allowed to touch the baggage of food upon arrival, prior, or afterwards, unless given a command. The way the troops fight is they destroy the enemies food, and must survive on food they either conquer, salvage or find en rout, then, once they finished, they turn homeward. However, they can be far away from home, and, and only then is the baggages’ opened up for use. Yet, still, the food goes to the commanders, then the Janissaries, are meted out daily rations calculated to the distant upon arrival home. The other soldiers need to fend for themselves. Hunger often has its supplicants and recipes. Consisting in a leather sack of the soldier is very fine flower, a jar of butter and some spices and salt. He mixes this with water to sustain his life when the soldier is reduced to the extremes of hunger. They take a few spoonfuls of flour and place them in water, adding a little butter, and then adding a little flavor to the mixture with salt and species. This, when it is put on the fire, boils and swells up to fill a large bowl. They eat it once or twice a day, according to the quantity, without any bread, unless they have some with them. So as to the quantity, without and bread usually is what sometimes they only eat for a month or so, on expositions. Sometimes they have recourse for horse flesh, a custom not indifferent to the Mongols. Some soldiers have dried beef ground into powder. This is quite the dramatic approach. Most possibly the other soldiers have incentives, in that possibly return for their risks and service they get landed estates, or life long royal services for the Sultan. Busqecq compares European soldier’s demands for good meals and tells of undisciplined which surely was ripe in these ages of European gluttony and undisciplined. One can see why the Ottomans held the Europeans economy at bay ( See Michael J M on Causes of the western dark ages).
The men had great silence and discipline. This is something that later the Europeans would come to understand when the French invented new military technology of discipline, resulting from undisciplined militaristics’ of Europe’s 30 years war; beginning from about the time of the treaty of Westphalia. When Busqecq was on his way to meet the Sultan, he passed a Janissary corps that he concluded were about several thousand in number. As it was the custom to salute them, they all bowed their heads in answering his salute. He said from a far off he thought they were statues, indicating the disciplined on attention.
The Europeans called Süleyman "The Magnificent," but the Ottomans called him Kanuni, or "The Lawgiver."
justice ('adale ). Qur'an itself points to King Solomon as embodying the perfect monarch because he so perfectly embodied 'adale ; Süleyman, named after Solomon, is regarded in Islamic history as the second Solomon.
Süleyman used his own interpretation for his own type of laws, already incorporated in the Empire’s unique law interpretation and called the kanun. The Shariah, consisting of the al’ hadiths, are supposed to be the standard Islamic Law universally, and placed into action everywhere by Muhammad’s decree. However, this was not the case, and after the the conquest of Baghdad, free-speech movements fought against the intolerance ruling they believed of the current and local interpretations of the al’ hadiths. Thusly, Qu’ranic law and Shariah Law will take a back seat for a more modern system of laws that have less racism. Hanifism, one of the four major different legal system ( schools) of Islamic law, is the most liberal ( for tolerable of other cultures). The kanum system is one of the reasons Sulyman became known as ‘the just [ruler].’ He incorporated tolerance laws that even caught the eyes of Shakespeare’s admiration for his power, cited in his last play, the Tempest. At this time and no other the Ottoman Empire is at its peak in land acquisition, institutions, world society influence, and world power. The Kunam law system was already operational before, Sulyman, recognized by the time of Murad, partly do to administration restrictions on implementing the Shariah, ( Which would have been too difficult with all the new tribes, and people, being acquiesce so suddenly that was the staple of this Empire’s mode and movement – they took in so much land so quickly that they needed to buy the support of the people, instead of making radical enmity right off the bat (So quickly). The laws that will come independent of the Shariah, naturally fell into place because of these circumstances. Some believe that the reason that the Shariah was not later put into full play is that much of the people that began the Ottomans came from Turkish and Mongol traditions, and not Arab.
One of the evidence for this is quite telling in that the Seljuks, and/or the Orguz, could not take the title of Caliph, as their name for the Ottoman ruler ship, because they had recently converted to Islam. In another stipulation, in order to become a Caliph, one needs to rule in one of the historic Islamic capitals, like Medina, Mecca or Baghdad, and a few others, of one of the historic Islamic Empire states. Yet, the Ottomans were doing so well on the battle front and in Empire building they didn’t need the support of the Imans, or Mufties at the moment. They were the biggest thing going in the world – they were it – the great civilization at this time. After Süleyman placed his interpretations on the laws, the laws were now in place and remained this was till the end. Thusly called, kanun-i 'Osmani , or the "Ottoman laws." In addition, everyone of history should know that there are to sets of laws for a mammoth civilization: Usually one law for the government administration, and one for the commons. The Ottomans were no different. the imperial law, or law pronounced by the Sultan or viserette, was considered sacred. They even had a special word for it: the Turks called it Türe and the Mongols called it Yasa.
1. Turkey Guide Regions of turkey < http://www.aboutturkey.com/turkey/Regions/turkey_printer_Central_Anatolia_.shtml> Sept. 2 . 2005
2.a,b, Outship < http://www.outship.com/articles/Oghuz_Turks> Wikipedia. Sept 2, 2005
Besides Europe, the Ottoman's main opponents from the founding period to the seventeenth century (later Russia and eastern Europe would play a dominating role in foreign policy.
In Iran, the Iman can and does interpret the Muslim laws ( State laws) , but the Shāh, can bee seen as a more secular version ( not always – but seen by some) of authority. The transplant of authority away from the Iman structure to the Shāh has been a major reason of instability in the region for Iran’s history, after Ismā’īl declared the safavids a Shī’ī state. Ismā’īl, although called himself the equivalent of the Christian messiah, was very practical in understanding how to found a state. Although, he didn’t lay down guidelines for the Shāh ‘s position or for state administration’s laws, he did show how incorporation and tolerance of different people of different religions needed to be achieve to form unity. His grandson, Shāh Abbās (1589-1629), will learn from this and this is one of the main reasons that Abbās’ practicality in conjunction with strictness and fairness he uses pays-off in a strong central, powerful Shī’ī state.
Ottoman History Early Insurrection
Princess who revolted:
Religious figures who revolted.
Babaî ( Baba Ishak) the ‘î’ on the noun Baba makes the word an adjective which means ‘the revolt of Baba.’
Sheik Bedrettin 1416; a ghazi; he is a full fledge member of the ulema ( ‘ulama). He is also a Kadis and a Kadis-asker ( military judge).
Ottomans in general, in the early years, are a radical visionist society. For example, how religious uprising against the Ottomans could have begotten wrath. For an Islamic person to accuse a Christian or a Jew of being a infidel than that Islamic person was brought up on charges of being an infidel himself. This was so strictly enforced and not liked by the rebelers, that its very civilic nature ( remember the Ottoman vision of future greatness’) of Ottoman regulations during the formative years of the Empire enrage purist or fundamentalist wrath. However, working in the Ottoman vision category, it was pure genius, and derived the desired results – a future powerful multi-cultured state.
Questions for the later period? Why are not people following the religious fanatics’ anymore in the Ottoman Empire? Was it because of spies? Was it because the sultan formed ways of pleasing everyone and thus everyone was happy? We will investigate this later.
Learn the Kizilbash
Shah Kulu 1511
The Turkmen are pushed around and are not supported with work and are not allowed in the Saffid state, but become subordinates to the Saffids, for promises of do this and do that and we will eventually let you in to our state ( political double talk) . The rebels take central and southeastern Anatolia but Ottoman troops are quickly sent to suppress it.
1527 was the beginning of the testing years for Süleyman. He didn’t get to the thrown by killing anyone, and thus many revelers first thought he was a wimp, which was not the case.
When thinking of threats, the insurrections in the capital city of Istanbul was a dangerous proposal, for one to even think about – yet, this idea begotten in some to say “Let’s try to get some money out of this capital,” both threats and rebellions succeeded in the long run and were disastrous in the short run.
Final Notes: After the religious figure revolts die out in Anatolia, for the Ottoman period, this is it – there were not more.
The janissaries are the scapegoats of Orientalism and Occidentalism history – both. Usually in a history survey course if the professor was not exposed to the causes behind the Ototman scenes, to what happened and what caused a decline ( actually a leveling off) in the empire, he or she will cite the janissary revolts as the main cause. This is not the case.
What is fair to say is that the Janissaries had a huge responsibility in keeping up the economic engines of the Ottoman Empire. Therefore the blame was put on them when the Sultans decided to call off normative campaigning, and decided to stay and play at the palace. Even this is a simplistic view, because it was the outreach and prohibition of the European resolve that squelched the very source of the Ottoman financial institution, indirectly as well subsequently. The Ottoman system was set up so that the Janissaries carried out the financial functions of the society but campaigning and acquiring new lands and taking booty to pay off the state’s debts. When they ran out of new lands to conquer, because of varying factors, they were the blame of the leveling off of the state, per say ( some say the beginning of the downfall, but is not today viewed this way). This was a very vexed view of the Janissaries. When Sultan Süleyman ‘ Kanuni’ decided that he could not take Vienna, he could only hope for small insignificant gains of booty and land elsewhere. The Sultan was responsible to pay the Janissary corps and when he found out there were no options he freaked out. The Janissaries tried to help by saying “Look we can take Vienna, and other significant European cities – hey- Sultan lets go.” But Süleyman, was embarrassed because he was already dealing with foreign dignitaries of Europe, like Francis I, telling them how invincible he was. Other aspects forced the Janissaries to revolt. One was the influx of gold and silver to the European and Arabian regions that was brought over by Portugal and Spain. This influx, devalued everyone’s money. In fact, Ottomans began to put less silver in their coins. Yet, less silver was not the only result of the devaluation that brought on the cause. It was inflation brought on by non-campaigning that eventually made prices skyrocketed in the Ottoman territories. In addition, there was an anti-war movement building up in the wealthy capital city and the state itself. The mothers and women in general began to have more wide influence in the daily politics of the Empire. Not only the Harem shift, but the political-femmes raised their voices to celebrate the males that had little of a life but to fight just for the sake of the state.
The Women wanted their good looking Janissaries to come and be with them instead of being out on the campaign trail for months and sometimes years at a time. They wanted them home. The problem stemmed in that the Janissaries were the bread winners for the Empire – thus the dilemma.
In effect, the Janissaries were the Political Constitution of the Ottoman Empire; they were the check on the Sultan’s power. If one sees a statement that says, “Janissaries got corrupted and the state began to decline,” then one will know that this is Orientalism and Occidentalism. The eventual downfall, and it cannot even be said it was a downfall, it was more of a leveling out, cannot be denounced by this one group alone - the Janissaries, but in reality by a complex association of events all, but, not dissimilar to other great empires’ problems eventually causing them to fall, as well ( see generalized downfalls) .
Princess who revolted:
a. He goes to Europe who takes him as a friend and eventually uses him as a pawn and later one locks him up with false promises of going to war with the Ottomans. Jem’s adventures are dearly chronicled and he even stayed with the Pope. His companion will be one of the foremost writers on the favoritism of the nomadic outcasts and how they were ill treated by the Saffids, and the Ottomans. Jem fought for human rights and one of the reasons that Bāyezīd II stated in the palace and bearly went out on campaign was that he was in fear because of Jem’s alliance with Europe, in that Bāyezīd was a marked man on the battlefield. Jem is a patron of the frontier fighter people. Jen eventually became prisoner. Jem’s significance is that he and his friends recorded much of the wrongdoings and or bad things, he and his friends thought of the early Ottoman Empire. Jem wanted to understand what would happen to the lesser fighters, the peacekeepers, the underprivileged and the frontier heritage. “What happened to this patronage”, he would say.
1529 Ibrahim Pasha siege of Vienna, and the Ottomans had already began to lose battles. ( note the tulips and sez designs are first employed at the Rüstam Pasha mosque ( Istanbul) , including the foremost increase in complex decorative employments, indicating a change to the humanism period, or the ‘ lets stop our constant thirst for conquest ways and settle down to art, and fine luxuries.”
Copyright © 2005 bookoflife.org Michael Johnathan McDonald. All rights reserved.
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