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World War I -- The Long and Short Term Causes


     

World War I the Long and Short Term Causes

 
     

By Michael Johnathan McDonald


World War One Strategies

• The first mechanized war.
• Largest war to date
• Need for a superman
• Fascination with Military man
• Terrorism begins war
• Technological developments
• Economic outcomes
• Significance


Long term Causes

Napoleons ways about militarism, imperialism and discipline were romanticized in the late 19th Century in Europe. Nationalism took a rise after the unification of Germany and Italy forcing many other areas to want to do the same. In the Turkish ruled areas of south eastern europe many ethnic groups under the oversight of Turkish rulers now wanted to follow Italy and Germany leads and proclaim their own national countries. Much of this was brought on by witnessing imperialism of the major countries of England, France, Italy, Germany and Spain do this and prospers. America didn’t much care about grabbing up the earth at the time. They still had much landscape to discover and build on. They had resources, such as deep coal mines and plenty of land to grow crops. Europe on the other hand was extremely vicious group of heritage so in grapping what else was left of the Earth was a competition: Closely watched by other countries as many countries nearly went to war with each other over land disputes, Europe melted into balkanization of tribes ( Races) and everyone began to call out each others histories. Small areas that had no history began to invent them by using old wives tales and possibly songs that were written of old: Literally making up there past to legit their made up heritage background.

Thomas Carlysle (1795-1881) Scottish essayist and historian wrote a book on a theory on how and why empires rise and fall. “The presents or absents of heroes determines empires.” For example, when Rome was first forming, great heroic persons who face difficult problems and built an empire, but at the collapse of the Roman Empire no heroes could be found, especially when it was needed the most in times of duress.

The same can be said of America, in all the extremely hard work of the builders of America. Now most Democrats and Republics sit back and purchase items made by Chinese slave labor camps, and dissidents who were jailed and have to work seventeen hours a day for protesting the Chinese government. Americans do not like hard work and Hollywood plays commercial after commercial on television reiterating this easy lifestyle. There are no heroes that can arise with an atmosphere like this in America. Greece had the same hero absence, at their demise, according to Carlysle ( the fact is that they simply killed people who tried to open peoples minds to the government corruption going on within the society. Example: Socrates).

Friedrich Nietzsche the German philosopher of the late 19th century wrote about having a need for a superman in tough times. Yet his example was a someone from Prussia and their father was a general and was married to a Jewish wife. Anyway, Heroes make civilizations and the 19th Century fascination with the military man thought to create character in a man. Napoleon was the model and Carlysle almost deified him.

Military bands were in high demand and songs of military marches and such were the order of the day. Even in the American civil war a parade was held down Pennsylvania Avenue and it was a bizarre sight to see soldiers wearing bright yellow Moroccan pants with their usual blue army suits, but the ladies would swoon over the army men. In fact, in these times you were not a real man unless you were connected in some way with the military. Empires were thought to bring peace because it was thought that “we are getting better and better.” Darwinism came into the scope with its evolution that the world is getting better and better. (Note Empires sustain themselves by expanding and expanding) So this was part of the background and thought going into World War I.

Back to the urgent problems of who got what in colonies building ( aka imperialism) France and England almost go to war over loggerheads of who gets this and who gets that. So tension builds in Europe.

One of the long term causes was about the eastern question? The two long term causes so far


1. Militarism
2. Eastern Question

The eastern question dealt with what is going to happen to the Turkish Empire. In the middle ages ( The Arabs) had gone as far as borders of Austria (c. 1600s) aloud, while they controlled much of the middle east and Anatolia, Palestine, and parts of North Africa ( Other Arabs controlled the rest of N. Africa). At the greatest extent of Turkish Empire they controlled all of Africa, most of Asia, much of southern Europe (Including Spain and parts of South France) and all of eastern Europe which included Hungary. By the end of the 1900s their empire was shrinking from long time bit by bit take back by the western world and the fact they didn’t modernize and were in family fights between their own rulers.

The major question now was “What happens to the East if the Turkish Empire collapses?”

England began to help modernize Turkey (Ottoman Empire); so all hell would not break loose. But the other factor played a role as well: If freedom came too soon, it would cause some major problems too. Britain wanted a foothold on the Turkish trade ports, so they helped modernize them for return favors. But, after the unification of Germany and Italy, these two new national countries challenged Britain for the trade rights in this part of the world. What could go wrong?

This major development caused a restructuring of the alliances in the world. Now the world, all parsed out, in order for the smaller guys (Other small territories) not be swallowed up and able to keep their own identities, they had to make pacts with the big strong countries in order for survival. These pacts were mostly with Germany, France, Italy and Britain. Who side are you going to choose if you were one of the smaller territories?

In 1870 France fought the Prussian-Franco war and was forced to accept Germany as a powerful nation who was on their eastern northern boarder. France was humiliated and looked for a desire for revenge (Remember the revenge they had on the English in helping out the Americans in the revolution). Yet, France leadership was at a all time low and Germany was surging ahead in progress. The French birth rate was dwindling and the German birth rate was increasing and this frightened the French. In addition the Germans celebrated their victory in the famed palaces of Versailles.


Nationalism was on the rise

Nationalism caused the unification of Italy and Germany inciting other countries to do the same. This was mostly out of protectionism. Some small countries collected fairy tales to give credence to their own historical background. It was a vain attempt promote anything nationalism. This is balkanization of a grand scale. So other countries now wanted their own independent national countries. Squabbles began to where to draw the new lines of these national countries. This increased the tensions in Europe.

Treaties and Diplomacy

The matter of the countries to deal with each other was to send ambassadors to other countries. Every country wanted the advantage so they called on each other to form alliances. There were so many treaties and the hardest reality to face that many of them were drawn up in secret, so that other countries did not know who was on their side. Fro example, France feeling the pressure of Germany said “We need a strong ally, and we need protection for ourselves.” They thought Russia was a good ally. But, they didn’t know that Bismarck all ready had beat them to the punch and made a treaty with Russia. So France was courting Russia for at least thirty years and laying on them money and gifts to get the alliance. In the meantime France was so scared that they signed a treaty of mutual defense (Aggression) with their arch enemies England. This was because there was no one left at the time. Finally in 1904 they got the treaty with Russia finalized. Champaign bottle were heard popping all over France, yet a year later the Japanese beat up the Russian army at Korea and the French cried “What have we done, we made a treaty with a country that cannot beat a small Pacific island country.

Meanwhile in 1870 the Turkish rule, except the Christian minority, wanted to free themselves from other Turkish rulers. Serbian independence in 1879 allied with Russia in a treaty of mutual defense. Albania of Turkish rule, they made a treaty with Austria. The Greeks made a treaty with England. Romania made a treaty with Russia. Bulgaria made treaties that swung back and forth. Everyone made alliances and skirmished over how to draw the boarders. Many minorities were scattered in the Turkish Empire of old now and nationalism forced them to side with whatever they felt was their rightful heritage: Many leftists believe that nationalism leads to racism and the right wing, except they do not comprehend that living under the rules of the Arabs was racism in itself. Nationalism was considered to be with your own color and heritage especially in Germany and Italy, but the truth of Nationalism in America was a mix bag of people living under an ideal of the Constitution of the United States and the left wing in America does not like the constitution, so they blame nationalism of white superiority as the root of the right wing when it was the leftwing in the southern states that owned black people as slaves and started a civil war because they wanted to keep slaves while the conservative rightwing in the north outlawed slavery from the beginning of the puritans and make blacks citizens with the same rights as the Europeans. This included England in the 19th Century as well.

Yet, while America was going through their own growing pains of equality of people, Europe was more at a tribal stage of race vs. race in much of the reorganization of the nationalistic mishmash. This reorganizing branded the south eastern Europe as the powder keg of Europe – it was about to explode. You had the most diverse ethnicities trying to figure out where they are supposed to call home.

1912 Turkey was really weak so the Serbians, Bulgarians and Greeks fought a short war of three months and the Turkish had to give up much land. This sent the different ethnicities into a land grab that began terrorism of the 20th Century. The battle over where the borders are draw makes the powder keg noticed by the world. Countries know a war is coming and only time before the launch time is to arrive so they prepare. Austria finally goes nationalistic and many Slavic people wanted their own country in the same country of Austria: For the world was too small now and two races fight over the same soil.

Short Term Causes

The Czech national movement had a leader by the name of Deutsch, which means Germany and another Czech national movement leader had a name of Nemez another name associated with Germany. So the mixing up of name over the centuries blurred the lines in who were who in further complicating things and identities in the region. The independent Serbia wanted to bring all their folks into a national country. This was seen as bad for Austria which had many of them living there. So Austria said equal status for all living there. Yet, the Slaves didn’t like the Hungarians and so the Serbs told the Austrians to give up land. The Serbs further said, “ If not we will do national advocating by using terrorist tactics.” Serbian s began to train their men into assassins and send them to Austria to kill political leaders. A law which was in effect in Austria said that no one under any circumstances was to be put to death for any crime. A “No death penalty” was in affect for any man under the age of nineteen years old. This was key factor in that Serbia began recruiting young men who had diseased that were going to die anyway and said “Why don’t you do something for our cause and become a hero.” The Serbs pick incurable debilitating diseased boys and train them to assassinate.

On the last days of June 1914 Arch Duke Ferdinand was going to Austria to conduct some ceremonial services and the Serb national terror squads warned Austria not to let him in, sent their assassins to strategic places in the cities he was attending to, and braced for war. Assassins placed in various parts of the cities one took a shot at Ferdinand’s wife but missed. Gabriel Princip another strategically placed assassin got a call from one of his leaders telling him to go to such and such a corner and wait for Ferdinand’s car to roll by and shot him. Stationed at a corner with a pistol he waited and waited but the driver of the limousine got lost. Princip became depressed after waiting for a long time and decided to go to coffee shop where he bought a drink and cried over it. Then he looks through the window and the Arch Dukes Limousine was right outside. He steps out the coffee shop and goes up to the car and shoots the Arch Duke dead. Then he was quickly arrested. This was a major assassination and at first it was not known who the culprits behind the shooting were. When authorities questioned the Serb national terrorist movement they denied having anything to do with it. But, soon the real details came out who was behind it a demand for no more assassination and an apology was ordered by the very upset Austrians. The Austrians placed a time limit to the Serbs terrorist movement to admit it was them and apologize and promise never to do it again. The Serbs talked in private about the Russian coming to their side in a treaty and Austria planned for the worst. Suddenly everyone gets into an alliance for battle. By the end of July the time of confession was approaching and Austria didn’t want to back down and loose face. They gave their word in an ultimatum and that was the way it ended. August 1 came and Austria rolls in the heavy artillery – within days WW I was an all out war.

World War One Strategies


World War one began from a long period of fear building because all the powers were grabbing up the minerals and resources and land. This had an effect of pushing people around the globe in an effort to get at what could make money and life easier for whoever held the power. The actual war began from a terrorism act. These same acts are appearing more and more in the world with the Arabs who use them to bully the west into giving up there lands. Political correctness, a blindfold apparatus, is defining the way governments make mistakes. What the problems of the root of the world is that the Arabs were only happy when they controlled much of the world during the middle ages and kept the westerners out. It has been many long centuries that the would could have integrated as a whole which has not been the case. People take sides over ethnicity. This was the underlining theme of World War I. Yes, there are many variables that we will discuss, yet the underlining theme was racism.

What we have learned from history is that honoring combatant treaties cannot lead the world into another world wide conflict. This is what the extremist Arabs want in the current effort of world terrorism. Just like the Serbian terrorist organization that triggered WW I, we have tried not to get overwhelmed by the terrible acts and deal with them on individual levels instead of bring entire nations against nations.

As the entire reasons for wars are too complex, we much look at the treaties of the imperialist times if the late 19th Century to get a clear picture of what lead to WWI. We have looked at the long-term and the short-term causes that lead up to WW I., now will look at the strategies behind the war itself.

August 1, 1914 most of the countries fall into two camps. Austria, Bulgaria, Turkey and Germany form what was called the Central Powers. Taiwan even joined them but it is uncertain how much of a role they really played.

France, Belgium, Britain, and Russia joined what was called the Alliance (Allies). Italy joined Austria then later they switched sides to the allies.

Holland, Spain and Switzerland remained neutral. This is a key factor in the southern German opening salvo on France. You were not supposed to run through a country that was neutral unless you asked for permission, which was not the case for Germany.

Because of imperialism, colonies around the world will be involved in the war. This is one treason it is called World War I, although in reality, it was the second.


First days of the war

Austria attacks Serbia because of there terrorist acts and the Serbians overwhelmed flee into Greece. Austria takes Serbia without a problem. Then Russia says, well we have a treaty with Serbia and we must honor it, so get the troops ready and were off to war. “ Within days total war breaks out.

Germany had a plan to this world war that was anticipated: invade France first then take out Russia. The reasons were that Russia was weaker because the country was slow in establishing industry during the Industrial revolution so their army was less sophisticated than France. In addition, Russia just lost a war against Japan and Korea who were considered lesser powers than European countries at the time. Attacking France where Germany would loose many soldiers, but still have enough of them to battle Russia and win, was a smarter option. Also, attacking France and winning decisively would make Britain cower. France on the other hand, was scared of Spain and Germany’s friendship for the last fifty years that they anticipated the not-so-secret German plan and built massive fortifications around all the german boarders. Concrete, steel, barbed wire, trenches made up a sort of wall to keep out the German troops. Germany realizing this said, “lets bypass this obstacle and run are army through Belgium.” So the germens figured this was a clever plan. It was called the Schliefen plan. The gernams figure it would take them three days of fighting to reach Paris and end the war. Boy were they wrong! So when the war began this is exactly what they did. Hitler who was literally homeless and hopeless joined the army but was only seen fit to run letters on the battlefield – a very dangerous job, which is said that his survival was miraculous and his comments to his fellow soldiers was that a ghost protected him from the flying bullets.

Belgium came into existence in the 1830s by saying their nation chose to be neutral in any conflict. When the germens didn’t ask for permission and just showed up rolling through the towns of Belgium the people were so upset that they picked up anything and started to battle the germen troops. So significant was this that it bogged them down and the French were able to rally their troops to the northern boarder to face-off with the germens. Without the Belgium breaking their treaty and fighting the germens the French would not have been ready in time. The Belgium’s were outraged and they called every abled-body-man to fight the germens. The French hearing that the war started hopped in taxis, on carts, on bicycles, on horses and with any vehicle to get themselves to the front line.

Within 3-5 days of the war the Germans were stopped. They should have said, “ Heah! We made a blunder, let’s negotiate for piece.” The Kiser ( Their king) didn’t want to loose face, just like the Austrians didn’t want to loose face on accusing the correct terrorist organization that assassinated one of their top political figures which triggered WWI. Finally when the British mobilized, both sides dug in for a four year trench warfare that would be much of the estimated 35 million people who would die in the loggerhead wars. Many call this area of the war the 100 yards war. This is because when one side would advance a hundred yards then the next side was make a major push to get the 100 yards back. Millions would die and the terrain that once been full of vegetation now looked more like the landscape of the moon.

Russia

Russia took the initiative to invade Austria. They got deep into the northern are of Austria and they were surprised how well the Russian army was doing. Germany recalled many troops from the northern French boarders to push-back Russia which happened. Re-troop-fit began the 60 mile war where one side pushed 60 miles and the other mounted an retrieval of the 60 miles. Poland who stayed neutral was caught in the middle. When the Russians advanced and occupied the villages of Poland the people had to help out the Russians ( Because they had the military). So when Germany retook the area they accused Poles of collaborating and killed them. Then when the Russians retook the same area they would accuse the poles of collaborating with the germens and would kill them. Meanwhile both sides took what they wanted and left Poland to starve.

New Weapons

Machine guns were invented and created the equal opportunity killing machine. Before commandeers would lead the rush of their particular squad of troops to battle the opponent. Now, the germens had machine guns and sprayed the commanders leaving a vacancy in much of the allies’ commanding officers. Now the allies had to pick unqualified people to head up these positions. For example, the British almost lost all of there commanders because they lead the charges. In addition, some French officers who were distraught and got a hold of machine guns (And sometimes cannons) and turned it on their own soldiers. This was a sad episode for France.

Hand grenades were deadly new weapon. Not only the troops on the ground war used them but eventually when the first planes began to battle, these became the precursor of bombs. Steel cannons which leveled buildings in one shot were created and they could be fired from behind enemy lines with devastating accuracy.

Airplanes

1. Surveillance was the first job of the new weapon called the airplane
2. The first bombs from an airplane were hand grenades.
3. Later bombs are made and used
4. At first firefights in the sky were accomplished by hand heal rifles. Also, one could not shoot from the front, or blow off his propeller blades. So the pilot would have to circle around his opponent and position himself to shoot from right angles at his enemy. Planes were first made out of wood and canvas and when the bullets would go right through the fuselages the plane was able to stay functioning. To get around this, air force pilots would use bricks and drop them onto a wing which created larger holes to kill an aircraft.
5. Later the development of frontal guns on the plane that fired thought the propeller on a calibrated system made it easier for the pilot to simple fly and while fighting.

6. Barbed wire was used and various chemicals: Acids that would melt a man and everything around him to the ground. This also included poison gas, mostly tear and mustard to disable the troops so the enemy could easier kill them. To get around this type of warfare the troops would have to wet their handkerchiefs and cover their air passages. Usually if no water was around the soldier would pee on his handkerchief.

7. Stung grenades were a deadly tool. These were like hand grenades but it utilized air pressure to blowout the lungs of the enemy and blow out the ear drums. Both sides wanted to ban them, but both sides continued to use them.

8. British invent the Tank. First they keep it secret and when they shipped them they told everyone that they were non-combatant vehicles used to water down the troops. They were called Water Tanks. And that is where the word comes from.

9. Britain was still the sea power of the world, but fast approaching industries ( Helped by industry proliferation of raw materials) helped gift out a modern navy for Germany that included submarines that were invented in America. Americans also invented the steel hulled ship.

Economy

War costs allot of money and it became a large issue for many countries. The Russians for example could one send one line of troops to charge in battle and the second line had no guns. Only way the second lineman could get a gun is that he pick it up of one of the fellow soldiers in the front line. National interests were all being depleted from every country so they all turned to America for finances to keep the war going. Of coerce, at hone in America, many people sympathized wit the English because many of the emigrants came from there, there was a policy in U.S. history of not getting involved in anyone else’s war no matter for what, unless it was in American protective interests.

Woodrow Wilson at first told Germany, Britain, France and the other nations “No Way!”

“Only because of the arrogance of the participants”…. the only steps I will take to fund is if you all sit down at the table and negotiate, he stated to the war leaders of Europe. So U.S.A. stayed neutral. At the time Winston Churchill called on the European countries to form a United States of Europe that is still trying to be done today in the guise of the European Union. Wilson still felt pressure to do something because of the casualties and the loggerhead mentality of the Europeans.



Copyright © 2004 Michael Johnathan McDonald Bookoflife.com (Michael Report)
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